Most Viewed: Last TWO YEARS
  • Original Article|Open Access

    Full retroauricular skin and fascia expansion in microtia reconstruction: a single center experience of 166 cases

    Ji-Hua Wang, Ting Tang, Yong-Jing He, Ying-Jia Zhang, Yun Yang
    Aim: Ear reconstruction is a challenge for plastic and reconstructive surgeons. The ear requires sufficient skin coverage and a three-dimensional (3D) cartilage framework. In this paper, the authors present their 10-year experience in microtia reconstruction using tissue expansion and an autogenous rib cartilage framework. Methods: Ear reconstruction was performed in 3 operative stages. During the first procedure, a 50-80 mL kidney or cylinder-shaped expander was implanted deep to the subcutaneous fascia of the retroauricular mastoid region. Over a period of 3-5 months, the expander was... Read more
    Plast Aesthet Res 2016;3:364-7. | doi:10.20517/2347-9264.2016.79
    Published on: 30 Nov 2016  | Viewed:16194  | Downloaded:548
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  • Topic: Keloid and its Treatment|Open Access

    Inflatable pressure garment device for pressure therapy after chest wall keloid operation and radiotherapy

    Shu Liu, Ke-Xin Song, You-Bin Wang
    Aim: Keloids often occur on the chest wall, with high recurrence rates despite surgery and radiotherapy. Garment pressure therapy is commonly used to treat hypertrophic scars and keloids. Irregularity of the chest wall surface can inhibit the effects of the garment pressure therapy. This clinical study is to determine the effect of inflatable pressure garment in preventing keloid recurrence after keloid operation and radiotherapy. Methods: Chest wall keloid was removed and radiotherapy was administered at the surgical sites on the 1st and 7th postoperative days in 61 patients. An inflatable... Read more
    Plast Aesthet Res 2017;4:92-6. | doi:10.20517/2347-9264.2017.26
    Published on: 16 Jun 2017  | Viewed:15570  | Downloaded:182
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  • Topic: Hair transplantation|Open Access

    Controlled clinical trial for evaluation of hair growth with low dose cyclical nutrition therapy in men and women without the use of finasteride

    Rajendrasingh Jalamsingh Rajput
    Aim: To evaluate possible results with the stimulation use of minoxidil and the strengthening of hair roots with nutritional cyclical supplements, resulting in increased hair regrowth, without the use of anti androgens and enzyme blockers. Methods: This prospective controlled clinical trial compares the current acknowledged form of treatment for hair loss within two controlled groups for both men and women against the use of cyclical nutritional therapy and minoxidil 2%. One hundred patients in each of the 4 groups, a total of 400 patients, were followed for 1 year. The progress was... Read more
    Plast Aesthet Res 2017;4:161-73. | doi:10.20517/2347-9264.2017.57
    Published on: 30 Sep 2017  | Viewed:12565  | Downloaded:126
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Improvements in the cervical angle and anthropometric distances using elasticum suspension

    Seong Kee Kim, Kun Hwang, Hun Kim, Young Rok Kim, Yeop Na
    Aim: This study aims to characterize the effects of elastic facelifts using the elasticum suspension technique on the cervical angle and anthropometric distances. Methods: Forty-six patients underwent surgery. Two 4-5 mm incisions a few centimetres apart were made at sideburn. Through blunt dissection, the deep temporal fascia was approached. An elastic thread (Elasticum®) was anchored to this fascia. A 1.0 cm incision was made just in front of the earlobe. The elastic thread was anchored to the tympanoparotid fascia. Jano needle was passed under the skin surface, as determined by the depth... Read more
    Plast Aesthet Res 2016;3:384-9. | doi:10.20517/2347-9264.2016.88
    Published on: 23 Dec 2016  | Viewed:10384  | Downloaded:273
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  • Review|Open Access

    Multipotency and secretome: the mechanisms behind the regenerative potential of adipose-derived stem cells

    Doruk Orgun, Hiroshi Mizuno
    The use of stem cells for regenerating damaged organs and tissues which are unable to heal on their own is a widely studied field in plastic and reconstructive surgery as well as medicine in general. Among various stem cell types, adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) are especially considered to be an ideal stem cell population for several clinical situations. These cells could be harvested from fat with relatively less invasive methods with high yield rates. ASCs have proved to be worthy of more research to understand the mechanisms behind their regenerative abilities. However, it remains... Read more
    Plast Aesthet Res 2017;4:32-40. | doi:10.20517/2347-9264.2016.109
    Published on: 22 Mar 2017  | Viewed:9835  | Downloaded:290
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  • Letter to Editor|Open Access

    Tips and tricks for getting more out of your delayed primary repair of ruptured flexor pollicis longus tendon

    Charles Yuen Yung Loh, Alethea Tan, Makarand Tare
    Plast Aesthet Res 2017;4:135-6. | doi:10.20517/2347-9264.2017.43
    Published on: 25 Aug 2017  | Viewed:9289  | Downloaded:169
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  • Topic: Advanced Wound Management and Prospects|Open Access

    Preliminary evidence using negative pressure wound therapy to achieve limb salvage for the ischemic diabetic foot

    Joe Chi-Cheng Fang, Yu-Tsung Chen, Yin-Shuo Chang, Jen-Hsiang Shen, Min-Ling Chen, Chang-Cheng Chang
    Aim: Negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) in diabetic foot ulcers (DFU) has been discussed in several studies, but without a focus on peripheral arterial disease (PAD), which is a common comorbidity. This study aims to investigate the feasibility of NPWT in the treatment of DFU with PAD in regards to limb salvage and the clinical course. Methods: The authors retrospectively collected patients with DFU and PAD diagnosed with either Doppler ultrasound or angiography as the PAD study group. Patients with DFU but no PAD were enrolled as the non-PAD comparison group. NPWT was applied to both... Read more
    Plast Aesthet Res 2016;3:378-83. | doi:10.20517/2347-9264.2016.06
    Published on: 20 Dec 2016  | Viewed:7915  | Downloaded:217
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    The experience performing extended abdominoplasty in massive weight loss patients

    Maria A. Bocchiotti, Elisabetta Adelaide Baglioni, Stefano Bruschi, Luca Spaziante, Erind Ruka
    Aim: The post-bariatric patients who undergo torsoplasty often incur postoperative complications that dilate their recovery time. The authors propose the technique of extended abdominoplasty, described in 2012 for aesthetic torso remodeling, in post-bariatric patients in order to reduce complications and hospitalization time. Methods: The authors performed 21 extended abdominoplasties and compared them with 21 torsoplasties in post-bariatric patients during a 1-year period. Data studied was age, gender, duration of the procedure, blood loss, complications and hospitalization duration.... Read more
    Plast Aesthet Res 2017;4:57-63. | doi:10.20517/2347-9264.2016.111
    Published on: 21 Apr 2017  | Viewed:7684  | Downloaded:169
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    Complex reconstructive surgery for a recurrent ischial pressure ulcer with contralateral muscle

    Erin L. Weber, Salah Rubayi
    The management of recurrent pressure ulcers is a frequent problem in patients with spinal cord injuries. Many local muscle and fasciocutaneous flaps can be used to cover ulcers of all sizes. However, when a recurrent pressure ulcer has been repeatedly addressed, the number of available flaps becomes quite limited. Contralateral muscles, such as the gracilis, can be used to cover recurrent ischioperineal ulcers and should be employed before last resort surgeries, such as hip disarticulation and the total thigh flap. Read more
    Plast Aesthet Res 2017;4:190-4. | doi:10.20517/2347-9264.2017.73
    Published on: 31 Oct 2017  | Viewed:6975  | Downloaded:114
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Evolution of hair transplantation

    Oguz Kayiran, Ercan Cihandide
    Aim: Numerous non-surgical methods and surgical options are available for the solution of baldness in the practice. Technology provides mighty weapons in this field. Thus, individualized solutions are best carried out with well-trained and qualified practitioners. Here, a modification of follicular unit extraction, direct hair implantation is introduced with previously licensed unique pens. Methods: Follicular unit extraction and direct hair implantation methods were carried out in 207 hair transplantations between January and December of 2014. The nests for the grafts were created via... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Hair transplantation
    Plast Aesthet Res 2018;5:9. | doi:10.20517/2347-9264.2017.86
    Published on: 11 Mar 2018  | Viewed:6480  | Downloaded:111
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    A simple classification and a simplified treatment’s algorithm for ptotic breasts

    Bouraoui Kotti
    Aim: Many classifications have been described in the literature for ptotic breasts, focusing on the nipple areola complex position compared to the inframammary fold. These use centimeters and lateral views to illustrate their various grades in a manner always insufficient to propose a clear treatment plan aimed at achieving natural results. We discuss a new dynamic approach to breast ptosis with a complete treatment algorithm. Methods: Patients were examined in a standing position first with hands down then with hands up. We observed the elevation of the inter-nipple line called the... Read more
    Plast Aesthet Res 2018;5:16. | doi:10.20517/2347-9264.2018.11
    Published on: 26 Apr 2018  | Viewed:6074  | Downloaded:157
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Thermal distribution and response in Q-switched ruby laser treatment for oculodermal melanosis (Nevus of Ota)

    David Cheong Chon Fok, Cheng-Jen Chang, Yun-Liang Su, Shu-Ying Chang, Yen-Chang Hsiao, Kuen Ting, Wen-Shiung Lin, Kuen-Tasnn Chen, Shih-Feng Chen
    Aim: A clinically useful treatment laser must generate stable and precise energy of low diffusivity. This study assessed the photothermal response of a Q-switched ruby laser (QSRL) in the treatment of oculodermal melanosis (Nevus of Ota). Methods: A two-year retrospective review of 40 patients with oculodermal melanosis treated with a QSRL (λ = 694 nm, pulse duration = 25 ns, 3 mm spot size, energy density 6-10 J/cm2) was performed. Demographics included an age range of 18-54 years (mean 28) and a gender distribution of 25 females and 15 males. The values recorded from real-time infrared... Read more
    Plast Aesthet Res 2017;4:1-8. | doi:10.20517/2347-9264.2016.85
    Published on: 19 Jan 2017  | Viewed:5690  | Downloaded:165
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Hypospadias: an algorithm for repair with the aid of the microscope in 102 patients

    Mohamed Maher, Maria Chasapi, Milind Dalal
    Aim: To demonstrate an algorithmic approach to hypospadias repair with the aid of the surgical microscope as a teaching aid, as well as an ergonomic tool. Methods: One hundred and two patients were operated on between 2009 and 2013, all by the senior surgeon (M Dalal). This is a retrospective review of results in the case series. The procedures used were one stage repair with no incision of the urethral plate, or the two stage Bracka repair. Results: Fifty-six patients underwent the one stage procedure and 46 patients underwent the two stage Bracka repair. Early complication rate was 4.9%... Read more
    Plast Aesthet Res 2017;4:64-9. | doi:10.20517/2347-9264.2016.105
    Published on: 27 Apr 2017  | Viewed:5611  | Downloaded:144
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    Unilateral rhinophyma: report of a case and review

    Scott Walter, Steven Krueger, Jonathan Ho, Kavitha K. Reddy
    Rhinophyma is a less-common subtype of rosacea that presents as thickened skin with enlarged sebaceous glands that may progress to large bulbous growths with dilated pores on the nose. Rhinophyma can lead to morbidity aesthetically and sometimes functionally. The prevalence of rosacea ranges from 1% to 20%. The exact pathogenesis is not known, but potential factors include altered circulation, changes in microorganisms and/or alterations in immunity. Here the authors present a unique case where a patient presented with unilateral rhinophyma: a presentation warranting work up to rule out... Read more
    Plast Aesthet Res 2017;4:49-53. | doi:10.20517/2347-9264.2017.08
    Published on: 22 Mar 2017  | Viewed:5559  | Downloaded:154
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    The extended running W-plasty: an additional tool for simultaneous reduction of the hypertrophied labia minora and redundant clitoral hood

    Hamdy A. Elkhatib
    Aim: The extended running W-plasty technique using the W-plasty principle is a modification of the conventional technique. The use of this technique was utilized for simultaneous reduction of the protuberant labia minora and the redundant clitoris. Methods: Twenty-three patients presented to the plastic surgery clinic between 2008 and 2015 with the complaints of protuberant and enlarged labia minora in conjunction with a hypertrophied clitorial hood. The extended running W-plasty was performed in all patients. Surgery was performed under general anesthesia as an outpatient procedure with a... Read more
    Plast Aesthet Res 2016;3:359-63. | doi:10.20517/2347-9264.2016.41
    Published on: 22 Nov 2016  | Viewed:5438  | Downloaded:244
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Anatomical features associated with venous congestion in DIEP flap using CT angiography with three-dimensional reconstruction

    Alejandro Ruiz-Moya, Rafael-Antonio Lopez-Garcia, Domingo Sicilia-Castro, Tomas Gomez-Cia, Pedro Infante-Cossio
    Aim: Computed tomography angiography (CTA) using three-dimensional (3D) virtual reconstruction has been increasingly used in planning deep inferior epigastric artery perforator (DIEP) breast reconstruction. Although the most common complication associated with this surgery is diffuse venous congestion, its origin remains unclear. The aim of this study was to assess the anatomical characteristics of the anterior abdominal wall vessels that could predict venous congestion, using CTA with 3D virtual reconstruction. Methods: A retrospective case-control study was conducted and a total of 169... Read more
    Plast Aesthet Res 2017;4:127-34. | doi:10.20517/2347-9264.2017.29
    Published on: 21 Aug 2017  | Viewed:5202  | Downloaded:133
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    Resolution of 2nd, 3rd or 4th interdigital space incomplete, simple syndactyly using a random vascularity flap

    Heriberto Garza de la Llave, Yusef Jiménez Murat, Alejandro Ángel Corona Figueroa
    Syndactyly consists of a variable fusion of soft tissue or of bone in adjacent fingers. This has important aesthetic and functional impacts on the development of the child due to the abnormal appearance of the hand. When the 1st web space is affected, it compromises grasp and development of the clamp function. Affliction of the 2nd, 3rd or 4th webspaces hinder the independent movement of the fingers adjacent to it. Current syndactyly release techniques have inherent disadvantages such as the use of skin from both the interdigital halves of the syndactylized fingers, the need to skin graft... Read more
    Plast Aesthet Res 2017;4:70-5. | doi:10.20517/2347-9264.2016.108
    Published on: 27 Apr 2017  | Viewed:5136  | Downloaded:172
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Modified lower eyelid blepharoplasty improves aesthetic outcomes in patients with hypoplastic malar prominences

    Muhammad Adil Abbas Khan, Kanza Aziz, Ammar Asrar Javed, Mark Gorman, Diaa Othman, Muhammad Riaz
    Aim: Aging affects the appearance of the eyelids and the surrounding malar region. Blepharoplasty improves the aesthetic appearance of this region, and multiple variants of the procedure have been reported. We here report our technique for modified lower lid blepharoplasty and cheek lift for patients with hypoplastic malar regions, which was introduced after observing prominent lower orbital rims in patients with flat malar prominences after blepharoplasty. Methods: This technique combines standard canthopexy and cheek-lift for rejuvenation of the mid-face with redraping of orbital fat and... Read more
    Plast Aesthet Res 2017;4:228-35. | doi:10.20517/2347-9264.2017.69
    Published on: 29 Dec 2017  | Viewed:4849  | Downloaded:137
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  • Topic: Advanced Wound Management and Prospects|Open Access

    Clinical pathway for an efficient wound care center

    Yu-Tsung Chen, Chang-Cheng Chang
    Plast Aesthet Res 2016;3:375-7. | doi:10.20517/2347-9264.2015.125
    Published on: 20 Dec 2016  | Viewed:4826  | Downloaded:400
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    A novel skeletal anchorage for rigid external distractor

    Rodrigo Fariña, Felipe Salinas
    Aim: Maxillofacial surgery has always aimed to find alternative therapies to treat severe maxillary hypoplasia. Distraction osteogenesis of the midface has become the technique with the best functional and aesthetic results. Nevertheless, anchoring a distractor to the middle third of the face continues to involve complex planning. Plus, achieving the desired force vector can sometimes be cumbersome and uncomfortable. The aim of this study is to propose a novel skeletal anchorage technique for the rigid external distractor. Methods: Non-controlled, prospective study of 9 patients with severe... Read more
    Plast Aesthet Res 2017;4:144-9. | doi:10.20517/2347-9264.2017.49
    Published on: 5 Sep 2017  | Viewed:4780  | Downloaded:187
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Transpalpebral eyebrow lift: the mini eyebrow lift

    Marcos Sforza, Renato Zaccheddu, Deborah Sforza
    Aim: This paper focus is to describe and evaluate the authors' personal technique for a simplified transpalpebral eyebrow lift. Methods: We performed surgery in 179 patients (95% females and 5% males) between years of 2008 and 2009. Initially, a thorough assessment of brow stability and symmetry was performed. To achieve desirable aesthetic we agreed upon the consensus that the eyebrow lateral third should be 0.3 to 1 cm above the supraorbital rim in women and just above or at supraorbital rim in men. Hence the surgery consisted of the removal of excess skin, treatment for bags if they were... Read more
    Plast Aesthet Res 2018;5:2. | doi:10.20517/2347-9264.2017.35
    Published on: 29 Jan 2018  | Viewed:4681  | Downloaded:67
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Reverse latissimus dorsi muscle flap for complex back defects: our experience

    Kumaraswamy Mohan Kumar, Shantha Kumar Shivalingappa, Veena Prabhakar Waiker, Udaya Shankar Odeyar
    Aim: The aim was to study the effectiveness of the reverse latissimus dorsi muscle flap in reconstruction of complex defects of the back. Methods: This is a retrospective study of patients who underwent reverse latissimus dorsi flap for reconstruction of the back, in a tertiary care hospital. The patient demographics, etiology, surgery indications and complications were studied. Results: The study had five patients between 2012 and 2016 who underwent reverse latissimus dorsi flap for reconstruction. The flaps survived in all the patients. Two patients had complications, unrelated to the... Read more
    Plast Aesthet Res 2017;4:76-81. | doi:10.20517/2347-9264.2017.16
    Published on: 26 May 2017  | Viewed:4467  | Downloaded:193
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  • Topic: Keloid and its Treatment|Open Access

    The radiation therapy in keloids treatment: a comprehensive review of pathomechanism, damage mechanisms and cellular response

    Jing Xu, Elan Yang, Nan-Ze Yu, You-Bin Wang, Xiao Long
    Keloid management has always been frustrating and challenging. The combination therapy of surgical excision and radiation therapy was deemed as the last resort for decades. The authors performed a thorough and comprehensive review over the mechanisms on how radiation therapy damages the keloid cells. The keloid cells’ cellular response towards damage induced by irradiation was also studied based on original and current literatures. Mechanisms of damage generated by radiation therapy on keloid cells remained partially understood. However, direct damage was identified playing dominant role,... Read more
    Plast Aesthet Res 2017;4:116-26. | doi:10.20517/2347-9264.2017.24
    Published on: 28 Jul 2017  | Viewed:4273  | Downloaded:278
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    A study of correlation between prosthetic breast reconstruction, antibiotic prophylaxis and surgical wound drains

    Emanuele Rampino Cordaro, Nicola Zerbinati, Alice Garzitto, Daria Almesberger, Michela Francescon, Raffaele Rauso, Mario Cherubino, Pier Camillo Parodi
    Aim: The primary aim of this investigation into the correlation between prosthetic breast reconstruction, antibiotic prophylaxis and surgical drains was to determine whether the short-term prophylaxis recommended in the current guidelines is in fact able to sterilize the peri-prosthetic pocket in patients undergoing prosthetic breast reconstruction via tissue expansion, permanent implant placement, or Becker implants, as well as augmentation to correct symmetry. Methods: A total of 96 women who had undergone prosthetic breast reconstruction surgery were considered. Patients were recruited... Read more
    Plast Aesthet Res 2017;4:24-31. | doi:10.20517/2347-9264.2016.52
    Published on: 28 Feb 2017  | Viewed:4010  | Downloaded:152
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  • Topic: Keloid and its Treatment|Open Access

    Reconstruction of a large defect of the female chest following keloid excision with use of the rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap

    Quan-Cang Men, Shu Liu, Ke-Xin Song, You-Bin Wang, Zhu Lin, Liu Hao, Xin-Hang Dong, Long Xiao
    Aim: This study aimed to investigate the efficacy of the myocutaneous flap of the rectus abdominis in the surgical treatment of a large defect on the female chest following keloid excision. Methods: According to the location and size of the keloid on the chest, a myocutaneous flap based on the left or right rectus abdominis muscle was designed and transferred for repair of a chest defect following keloid resection. Radiotherapy was performed in the surgical area on the first and seventh postoperative days. Results: From January 2015 to March 2016, rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap coverage... Read more
    Plast Aesthet Res 2017;4:86-91. | doi:10.20517/2347-9264.2017.25
    Published on: 26 May 2017  | Viewed:4001  | Downloaded:142
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Non-invasive focused ultrasound for abdominal circumference reduction: does it really work?

    Eric Barel, Abraham Amir, Asaf Olshinka, Dean Ad-El
    Aim: Non-invasive body contouring is a promising modality. However, due to a lack of good evidence-based data, the mechanism by which contouring occurs remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of treatment with the Contour I™ ultrasound system (Ultrashape®, Syneron®, Israel) on abdominal circumference and to compare 2 power levels for efficacy and safety. Methods: A prospective, self-controlled double-blind design was used. Thirty-six women, aged 30-45 years, were randomized to receive treatment with the Contour I at high or low acoustic outputs in 3 successive... Read more
    Plast Aesthet Res 2016;3:368-74. | doi:10.20517/2347-9264.2015.81
    Published on: 14 Dec 2016  | Viewed:3876  | Downloaded:175
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  • Editorial|Open Access

    Portraits of two innovative plastic surgeons in the National Portrait Gallery

    Kun Hwang
    Plast Aesthet Res 2017;4:15-7. | doi:10.20517/2347-9264.2016.110
    Published on: 22 Feb 2017  | Viewed:3837  | Downloaded:105
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    The labio-mandibular flap for upper lip and peri-commissural defects

    Ruben Yap Kannan, Charles Nduka
    Aim: Peri-commisural defect reconstruction using the Abbe or Estlander flaps tend to pilfer tissue from the lower lip, contributing to microstomia, with its attendant problems. In this study, we aim to design a flap for more superficial defects, in which the underlying orbicularis oris muscle can be preserved when resecting peri-commisural skin malignancies whilst also ensuring completeness of excision. Methods: In a retrospective case review of 7 cases at our institution over a 12-month period (2016-2017), we conceptually designed a perforator-plus fascio-cutaneous flap from within the... Read more
    Plast Aesthet Res 2018;5:4. | doi:10.20517/2347-9264.2018.02
    Published on: 31 Jan 2018  | Viewed:3740  | Downloaded:97
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  • Topic: Applications of Biomaterials in Plastic and Reconstructive Research|Open Access

    Hyaluronic acid: a versatile biomaterial in tissue engineering

    Zhu Zhu, Yin-Min Wang, Jun Yang, Xu-Song Luo
    The design and application of hyaluronic acid (HA)-based scaffolds to control cell response and construct ideal tissue engineering products have been of great interest in the past few decades. This review provides an overview of the biological properties of HA to better understand how to engineer a cell-scaffold composite that is qualified in tissue engineering; important tissue engineering applications of HA including cartilage tissue engineering; and lastly, the problems of the current research on HA. All the data described above were collected and analyzed from PubMed, EMBASE and Medline. Read more
    Plast Aesthet Res 2017;4:219-27. | doi:10.20517/2347-9264.2017.71
    Published on: 29 Dec 2017  | Viewed:3662  | Downloaded:207
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  • Letter to Editor|Open Access

    Management of complications of Medpor® implants in rhinoplasty

    Kapil Agrawal, Raghav Shrotriya
    Plast Aesthet Res 2017;4:54-6. | doi:10.20517/2347-9264.2017.06
    Published on: 30 Mar 2017  | Viewed:3279  | Downloaded:140
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    A new tool to assess human fat grafts transplanted into nude mice using a nuclear magnetic resonance device

    Aviad Keren, Simon Filson, Nadia Smirnov-Shalom, Amos Gilhar, Yehuda Ullmann
    Aim: Over the past two decades, there has been a dramatic increase in the research of the use of autologous fat grafting in clinical practice. Despite the many advantages this method possesses, the unpredictable fat resorption rates limit its use. The primary aim of this study was to develop an accurate, quick, non-invasive assessment tool, using the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) technique, which allows the injection of fat in small droplets rather than in large aliquots (the main drawback of our formerly described method) which allows assessment of fat retention in a more clinically... Read more
    Plast Aesthet Res 2017;4:97-103. | doi:10.20517/2347-9264.2017.14
    Published on: 27 Jun 2017  | Viewed:3258  | Downloaded:133
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Optimization of tissue anchoring performance and mechanical properties of barbed sutures for flexor tendons repair

    Joseph Bakhach, Ahmad Oneissi, Elsa Bakhach, Reem Karameh, Mireille Hantouche, Elie Shammas
    Aim: The ideal flexor tendon repair should be reliable, simple and strong enough without impairing the tendon healing. Based on these requirements, we have imagined the use of a single barbed intra-tendinous suture for stumps connection. The aim of our research is to quantify the stress that the suture and barbs should withstand in order to ensure perfect stumps connections. Methods: Seven different cross-section sutures were selected for the research study. One circular and 6 different elliptical shapes were defined according to the ratio of their minor and major axes (ρ = b/a). Barbs were... Read more
    Plast Aesthet Res 2018;5:12. | doi:10.20517/2347-9264.2018.01
    Published on: 8 Apr 2018  | Viewed:3257  | Downloaded:70
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  • Topic: Complex Reconstruction of the Face, Breast and Wounds with Microvascular Free Flaps|Open Access

    Proximal femur reconstruction using a vascularized fibular epiphysis within a cadaveric femoral allograft in a child with Ewing sarcoma: a case report

    Michelle Y. Seu, Allison Haley, Brian H. Cho, Hannah M. Carl, Tobias J. Bos, Aladdin H. Hassanein, Alison L. Wong, Carol D. Morris, Justin M. Sacks
    Periarticular reconstruction of appendicular bones in skeletally immature patients after tumor resection is a surgical challenge that requires a multidisciplinary approach. The authors present a case of Ewing sarcoma of the proximal femur in an 8-year old girl treated with wide resection of the primary tumor and reconstruction using a vascularized fibula epiphyseal autograft within a cadaveric femoral allograft. The native femoral head was preserved to restore articular anatomy. Postoperative course was without complications. This report demonstrates the use of a vascularized fibula... Read more
    Plast Aesthet Res 2017;4:209-14. | doi:10.20517/2347-9264.2017.47
    Published on: 30 Nov 2017  | Viewed:3174  | Downloaded:75
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    In vivo degradation of poly L-lactic D-lactic acid and tri-methylene carbonate sheets in orbital reconstruction

    Kun Hwang, Hyung Mook Kim
    This study was conducted to evaluate changes in the composition of a poly-L-lactic D-lactic acid and trimethylene carbonate (PLDLA-TMC) sheet after insertion into the human body. A 35-year-old woman had an orbital fracture that was reconstructed using a PLDLA-TMC sheet. During iliac bone grafting for enophthalmos 190 days after the insertion, the sheet was removed and analyzed using gel permeation chromatography and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The weight average molecular weight decreased (from 151,000 Da to 10,000 Da), as did the number average molecular weight (from 15,600 Da... Read more
    Plast Aesthet Res 2017;4:9-12. | doi:10.20517/2347-9264.2016.78
    Published on: 19 Jan 2017  | Viewed:3141  | Downloaded:172
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  • Letter to Editor|Open Access

    Five “Ds” of plastic surgery

    Preethitha Babu, Ravi Kumar Chittoria, Sudhanva Hemanth Kumar, Senthil Kumaran Marimuthu, Elan Kumar Subbarayan, Konda Sireesha Reddy, Vinayak Chavan, Devi Prasad Mohapatra, Meethale Thiruvoth Friji, Dinesh Kumar Sivakumar
    Plast Aesthet Res 2017;4:13-4. | doi:10.20517/2347-9264.2016.104
    Published on: 19 Jan 2017  | Viewed:2997  | Downloaded:127
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    Double-paddled pectoralis major myocutaneous flap as an alternative to microvascularized free flaps in complex orocervical defects

    Manuel Moreno-Sánchez, Raúl González-García, Carlos Moreno-García
    The authors present the double-paddled pectoralis major myocutaneous flap as a successful alternative for the reconstruction of complex orocervical defects following failure of prior microvascularized free flaps or free flap harvest is not feasible. This method was used for the reconstruction of post-ablative defect in a 36-year-old male with a T4 squamous cell carcinoma of the base of tongue with laryngeal involvement. The distal paddle was adapted to reconstruct a defect of the floor of the mouth and further sutured in two layers (muscle-basal mandible and skin paddle-oral mucosa) while... Read more
    Plast Aesthet Res 2017;4:82-5. | doi:10.20517/2347-9264.2016.99
    Published on: 26 May 2017  | Viewed:2792  | Downloaded:125
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Pressures secondary to circumferential digital dressings in clay models

    Han Joon Kim, Kun Hwang
    Aim: With little manipulation, compression bandages placed circumferentially around the digit can be rolled up the digit, creating a tourniquet effect. The aim of this study was to elucidate the pressures induced by self-adherent bandages applied circumferentially around the fingers. Methods: After fabricating various clay finger models using the live finger as a model, the pressure of each self-adherent bandage was measured at the level of the proximal phalanx. Two different self-adherent bandages were applied with variables of different levels of tightness, number of wraps, and whether... Read more
    Plast Aesthet Res 2017;4:41-8. | doi:10.20517/2347-9264.2016.94
    Published on: 22 Mar 2017  | Viewed:2607  | Downloaded:119
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    Clinical applications of the jugal lipectomy technique: case reports

    Bárbara do Amaral Antunes, Alan Robert Moreira Schmitt, Michel Abrão Neto, Filipe Jaeguer, Maria da Graça Naclério-Homem, Matheus Furtado de Carvalho
    The adipose body of cheek is the tissue located in the buccal space. In the past, the partial removal of this tissue, called jugal lipectomy, was indicated to fill defects resulting from buccosinusal communications and/or maxillary resections. Recently, such technique became popular in facial aesthetics as it gives patients the feel of a more delicate face, in which the zygomatic bone appears to be more prominent due to the reduction in the volume of the cheeks. However, many professionals are unaware of how to establish the correct diagnosis of facial volume alterations, as well as in... Read more
    Plast Aesthet Res 2018;5:11. | doi:10.20517/2347-9264.2018.03
    Published on: 14 Mar 2018  | Viewed:2600  | Downloaded:115
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Preoperative planning and breast implant selection for volume difference management in asymmetrical breasts

    Umar Daraz Khan
    Aim: To assess volume management in patients presenting with breast asymmetry and ptosis. Methods: Retrospectively collected data was analysed. The patients were divided into 3 groups. Group A included patients who had volumetric difference alone and had different size implants alone. Group B included patients who had volumetric difference with breast ptosis requiring mastopexy with different size implants. Group C included patients who presented with breast asymmetry with ptosis and had same size implants on both sides with different volume breast reduction. Results: Subgroup A1 included... Read more
    Plast Aesthet Res 2017;4:108-15. | doi:10.20517/2347-9264.2017.36
    Published on: 19 Jul 2017  | Viewed:2520  | Downloaded:316
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Early muscle reinnervation by means of end-to-side neurorrhaphy in an experimental model

    Araceli Pérez, Rafael Reynoso, Rosa M. Romero, Angélica González, Jorge Ochoa, Dulce H. Gutiérrez, Damián Palafox
    Aim: The aim of the study was to provide early muscular reinnervation to avoid muscle atrophy and functional loss in an experimental model. Methods: Fifty rats were divided into five groups. In group 0 (control group) only nerve dissection was performed. Total peroneal nerve section was performed in the remaining groups. Immediate end-to-end neurorrhaphy (EEN) was made in group 1. In group 2, an end-to-side neurorrhaphy (ESN) was performed from the tibial nerve to the peroneal nerve. In group 3, a direct EEN, plus an ESN, were used as a nerve graft as a bridge from the donor nerve (tibial);... Read more
    Plast Aesthet Res 2017;4:18-23. | doi:10.20517/2347-9264.2016.95
    Published on: 22 Feb 2017  | Viewed:2452  | Downloaded:116
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    Teen aesthetic surgery may eliminate bullying

    Dustin Derrick, Lauren Crawford, Jim Sheridan, Randy Buckspan, Alexis Delgado, Sebastian Gualy, Diana Vo, Markos Salisbury, Robert A. Ersek
    The media has a large influence on what constitutes modern day beauty, as it suggests to susceptible young girls and boys what makes someone beautiful. The term “beautiful” is portrayed as curvy, thin, tall, with voluptuous hair, big eyes, large breasts, round buttocks, and full lips. Very few people in society naturally appear like this, and thus many people undergo cosmetic surgery for this desired look. This article will examine the difference of opinions regarding the exact age to consider aesthetic plastic surgery. Adolescence is frequently bullied about any defect. The authors discuss... Read more
    Plast Aesthet Res 2017;4:178-84. | doi:10.20517/2347-9264.2017.64
    Published on: 26 Oct 2017  | Viewed:2332  | Downloaded:124
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Fat grafting as adjuvant to reduce scars in arm

    Katarina Andjelkov, Connor John Atkinson
    Aim: Brachioplasty in patients who are normal weight, with moderate skin excess and who are not accepting long scars, remains a challenge for plastic surgeons. Methods: We present our experience in 47 patients with short scar brachioplasty in combination with posterolateral liposuction, fascia anchoring and fat grafting in the inferomedial arm in order to improve skin quality and correct minor irregularities. Patients’ satisfaction rates were evaluated after 3 and 6 months following the procedure. Results: Patients (groups IIa, IIb and IIIa according to Rohrich classification) showed high... Read more
    Plast Aesthet Res 2018;5:18. | doi:10.20517/2347-9264.2017.96
    Published on: 25 May 2018  | Viewed:2254  | Downloaded:124
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Key rheological properties of hyaluronic acid fillers: from tissue integration to product degradation

    Samuel Gavard Molliard, Jérémie Bon Bétemps, Basste Hadjab, David Topchian, Patrick Micheels, Denis Salomon
    Aim: Over the last 15 years, hyaluronic acid (HA) fillers have become the most popular injectable biomaterial for soft tissue correction. With the increasing number of available HA fillers and the multiplication of facial treatments all over the world, there has been a need from physicians to better understand the HA fillers science. There is especially a growing interest in the science-based evaluation of rheological characteristics which represents an essential tool to guide physicians in the selection of the most appropriate HA fillers, administration techniques and depths of injection... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Biomaterials in Plastic and Reconstructive Research
    Plast Aesthet Res 2018;5:17. | doi:10.20517/2347-9264.2018.10
    Published on: 14 May 2018  | Viewed:2191  | Downloaded:148
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Immediate iliac bone graft reconstruction of post ablative defect of benign mandibular pathology - a systematic review

    Olufemi K. Ogundipe, Olalere O. Gbolahan
    Aim: Autogenous iliac crest bone graft is frequently used in immediate reconstruction of post ablation defect of benign mandibular pathologies. The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic literature review on the complication and failure rates with this technique and factors associated with failure. Methods: The initial literature search in PubMed and Cochrane databases identified 915 articles. Result: Of these, 7 were included in the final review. The majority of the studies were retrospective in nature. These articles encompassed 127 procedures with non-vascularized iliac crest bone... Read more
    Plast Aesthet Res 2017;4:137-43. | doi:10.20517/2347-9264.2017.41
    Published on: 29 Aug 2017  | Viewed:2168  | Downloaded:144
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    Management of the recalcitrant upper lip

    Al Haitham Al Shetawi, Rui Fernandes
    The aim of this study was to present our experience in the management of the recalcitrant upper lip and describe the surgical technique. We took a retrospective chart review of all patients who underwent reconstruction of the recalcitrant upper lip after maxillectomy and radiation therapy. Three female patients were identified. All patients had a history of malignant maxillary tumors, mucoepidermoid carcinoma (n = 1), verrucous carcinoma (n = 1), squamous cell carcinoma (n = 1). Tumor extirpation was carried out through total maxillectomy (n = 2), and bilateral subtotal maxillectomy (n =... Read more
    Plast Aesthet Res 2018;5:1. | doi:10.20517/2347-9264.2017.61
    Published on: 29 Jan 2018  | Viewed:2129  | Downloaded:64
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Larger breast implants warranted for post-mastectomy reconstruction

    Ashley L. Howarth, Abigail M. Rodriguez, Vipul Gargya, Heather D. Lucas, Raman C. Mahabir
    Aim: Our goal was to ascertain if there was a role for larger breast implants in breast reconstruction. Methods: Patients that underwent mastectomy and implant-based breast reconstruction were identified and reviewed. Results: Of the total specimens, 92 (14.7%) weighed more than 800 g with a mean weight of 1140 g (range 803 to 2177 g). Of the patients with these larger specimens, 45 (48.9%) selected the largest available implants (800 mL implants) for their reconstruction. Conclusion: There are patients undergoing mastectomy and implant-based breast reconstruction who are unable to have... Read more
    Plast Aesthet Res 2017;4:215-8. | doi:10.20517/2347-9264.2017.80
    Published on: 29 Dec 2017  | Viewed:1985  | Downloaded:98
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  • Letter to Editor|Open Access

    Use of “tent-pole” graft for setting columella-lip angle in rhinoplasty

    Kapil Agrawal, Raghav Shrotriya
    Plast Aesthet Res 2018;5:13. | doi:10.20517/2347-9264.2018.17
    Published on: 18 Apr 2018  | Viewed:1857  | Downloaded:50
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Optimization of the design of a barbed suture for flexor tendon repair using extended finite element analysis

    Joseph Bakhach, Ahmad Oneissi, Dimitri Bakhach, Reem Karami, Kobeissi Hiba, Shammas Elie
    Aim: Use of barbed sutures for flexor tendon repair is a promising technique. These sutures lie within the substance of the tendon, avoiding the need of external knots and so improving tendon gliding. The load is dispersed equally along the length of the barbed suture, decreasing the possibility of rupture. The purpose of this article is to propose enhanced suture geometry by comparing different cross-sectional configurations, barb cut angles and cut depths using the finite element method. Methods: Inspired by the geometry of flexor tendons, an elliptical cross-sectional wire was... Read more
    Plast Aesthet Res 2018;5:21. | doi:10.20517/2347-9264.2018.14
    Published on: 30 Jun 2018  | Viewed:1789  | Downloaded:25
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  • Editorial|Open Access

    Towards the future of plastic surgery: from flaps to microsurgery and regenerative medicine and biofabrication?

    Raymund E. Horch, Annika Weigand, Harald Wajant, Ran An, Jia-Min Sun, Andreas Arkudas
    Plast Aesthet Res 2017;4:185-9. | doi:10.20517/2347-9264.2017.72
    Published on: 31 Oct 2017  | Viewed:1758  | Downloaded:119
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Early experiences with the use of Earfold™ for correction of prominent ears

    Bernd W. Schuster
    Aim: This paper describes the author’s personal experience with using the minimally-invasive Earfold™ implant. Methods: The author inserted the Earfold™ implant into 19 patients (5 men, 14 women) between November 2016 and June 2018. Bilateral implantation was performed in 14 patients. In 5 cases, implantation was limited to one ear. The author’s main indication for treatment was a helical-mastoid distance of more than 20 mm. Additional antihelixplasty of the upper ear was performed in 4 patients (2 primarily and 2 after explantation). One patient underwent simultaneous treatment of... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Biomaterials in Plastic and Reconstructive Research
    Plast Aesthet Res 2018;5:22. | doi:10.20517/2347-9264.2018.13
    Published on: 17 Jul 2018  | Viewed:1735  | Downloaded:25
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  • Technical Note|Open Access

    Safe and easy hair transplantation utilizing KD spreader

    Kuldeep Saxena
    Aim: An atraumatic insertion of graft is key to successful outcomes in this procedure but there is a definite learning curve in available techniques. Many physicians do not continue hair restoration practice because of the repeated initial failures. The goal of any technique or instrument in follicular unit extraction (FUE) is to extract an individual follicular unit without transaction and implanting it in recipient area without producing physical trauma to the follicular unit. This article describes a novel technique in which an innovative instrument, the KD spreader, that addresses all... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Hair transplantation
    Plast Aesthet Res 2018;5:5. | doi:10.20517/2347-9264.2017.67
    Published on: 27 Feb 2018  | Viewed:1600  | Downloaded:109
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Projection capacity assessment of hyaluronic acid fillers

    Jérémie Bon Betemps, Francesco Marchetti, Tingsong Lim, Basste Hadjab, Patrick Micheels, Denis Salomon, Samuel Gavard Molliard
    Aim: Hyaluronic acid (HA) is considered as the gold standard biomaterial for facial soft tissue correction. Over the last 8 years, there has been a strong demand from physicians for HA products with high projection capacity to restore facial volume loss at the level of the cheeks, cheekbones, chin, temples and jawlines. The projection capacity is thus an essential property for HA fillers especially for the products dedicated to the restoration of the volume of the face. Methods: In this publication, a new skin model assay for evaluating the projection capacity of HA fillers is presented,... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Biomaterials in Plastic and Reconstructive Research
    Plast Aesthet Res 2018;5:19. | doi:10.20517/2347-9264.2018.24
    Published on: 28 Jun 2018  | Viewed:1500  | Downloaded:94
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    Reverse bilateral latissimus dorsi flap reconstruction after extensive mid back dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans excision: a case report

    Stefano Bonomi, Laura Sala, Alessandro Gronchi, Dario Callegaro, Umberto Cortinovis
    Surgical resection of soft tissue sarcoma of the trunk can result in large defects requiring complex reconstruction for coverage of vital neurovascular structures and tissue defect. Large defects of the back could be reconstructed with multiple random pattern or local pedicled flaps. We present the case of a 48-year-old patient with a locally advanced dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans of the back. Wide local excision of the lesion was performed. The soft tissue defect measured 22 cm × 20 cm × 4 cm and was reconstructed with bilateral reverse latissimus dorsi myocutaneous (RLDM) flap. Each... Read more
    Plast Aesthet Res 2018;5:8. | doi:10.20517/2347-9264.2017.93
    Published on: 6 Mar 2018  | Viewed:1456  | Downloaded:52
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  • Review|Open Access

    Reviewing immunosuppressive regimens in animal models for vascularized composite allotransplantation

    Aline Yen Ling Wang, Charles Yuen Yung Loh
    The development of vascularized composite allotransplantation (VCA) and its clinical need has led to the need for more animal models to study and perform the research required to further this specialty in terms of functional recovery and immunomodulatory improvements. Much of the animal models are reported in individual series in the literature but there has not been a review as such of these models. Here we present a compilation of the animal models reported in the literature thus far in VCA. A comprehensive review of the literature was performed for any studies which involved the use of... Read more
    Plast Aesthet Res 2018;5:10. | doi:10.20517/2347-9264.2017.90
    Published on: 13 Mar 2018  | Viewed:1454  | Downloaded:65
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Comparison of breast reconstruction using ipsilateral and contralateral pedicle transverse rectus abdominis musculocutaneous flaps

    Ramesh Omranipour, Sima Mashayekhi, Mahtab Vasigh, Sadaf Alipour, Habibollah Mahmoodzadeh
    Aim: Breast reconstruction has several beneficial effects on psychosocial well-being and quality of life. The ultimate goal has always been to create the most natural breast mound. Thus in many centers, the unilateral pedicled transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous (TRAM) flap remains the most common technique for breast reconstruction. Our objective was to retrospectively compare the outcomes of ipsilateral and contralateral pedicle TRAM flaps. Methods: The total of 110 patients underwent unilateral breast reconstruction with pedicle TRAM flap at Cancer Institute of Tehran University of... Read more
    Plast Aesthet Res 2017;4:155-60. | doi:10.20517/2347-9264.2017.55
    Published on: 29 Sep 2017  | Viewed:1442  | Downloaded:83
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Degree and location of metacarpal angulations

    Laxminarayan Bhandari, Cynthia Sathekga, Francisco Aguilar, Luis Vicentela, Elkin Galvis
    Aim: Fractures of metacarpals are commonly encountered in hand surgery. For adequate fixation, a thorough knowledge about the anatomy is essential. While fixing the metacarpals with plates and screws, plates are bent to contour the dorsal surface. However, there are no reference values in literature for the location and degree of angulation. The authors studied the dorsal surface of metacarpals in cadavers to gather data regarding the location and degree of angulation of the dorsal cortex. Methods: Cadaveric dissections of 118 metacarpals from 30 hands were performed. A true lateral view of... Read more
    Plast Aesthet Res 2017;4:174-7. | doi:10.20517/2347-9264.2017.65
    Published on: 20 Oct 2017  | Viewed:1412  | Downloaded:76
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    When free flaps are not the first choice: is the distally based peroneus brevis still an option for foot and ankle reconstruction in the era of microsurgery?

    Raymund E. Horch, Ingo Ludolph, Marweh Schmitz, Anja M. Boos, Ulrich Kneser, Justus P. Beier, Andreas Arkudas
    ... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Wound Healing and Plastic Surgery
    Plast Aesthet Res 2018;5:26. | doi:10.20517/2347-9264.2018.25
    Published on: 31 Jul 2018  | Viewed:1407  | Downloaded:63
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  • Commentary|Open Access

    Comment on “Multipotency and secretome: the mechanisms behind the regenerative potential of adipose-derived stem cells”

    Young-Joon Jun
    Plast Aesthet Res 2017;4:104-5. | doi:10.20517/2347-9264.2017.18
    Published on: 27 Jun 2017  | Viewed:1312  | Downloaded:103
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  • Review|Open Access

    Complex reconstruction of the lower extremity following sarcoma resection: a literature review

    Beina Azadgoli, Antoine L. Carre, David P. Perrault, Alex K. Wong
    While amputation was traditionally the only option available for patients with sarcomas of the extremities, chemotherapy, radiation, and advances in microsurgical technique have allowed many patients to undergo limb-salvaging procedures. Given the low incidence and heterogeneity of these tumors, there is currently no standard treatment algorithm for limb reconstruction after large sarcoma resection. Thus, we systematically reviewed the various types of free tissue transfer used for the reconstruction of lower limbs after sarcoma resection. Techniques were described based on anatomic... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Complex Reconstruction of the Face, Breast and Wounds with Microvascular Free Flaps
    Plast Aesthet Res 2018;5:3. | doi:10.20517/2347-9264.2017.32
    Published on: 29 Jan 2018  | Viewed:1310  | Downloaded:70
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Permanent volumizing and contouring of the lower face using 350 centistokes injectable silicone

    Betul Gozel Ulusal
    Aim: An ideal injectable material would be biocompatible with long-lasting effects. The relative polymerization and chain length of the compound determines its viscosity, as measured by centistokes (cp). It is available in 350, 1000 and 5000 cp - the higher the number, the more viscous the oil. Most of the reports used 1000-cp silicone oil for filling purposes and due to high viscosity, only microdroplet injection technique is recommended to avoid complications. This is the first report of patient series using liquid silicone with a 350-cp viscosity The objective of this study was to... Read more
    Plast Aesthet Res 2018;5:7. | doi:10.20517/2347-9264.2017.81
    Published on: 28 Feb 2018  | Viewed:1271  | Downloaded:80
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    A novel highly specialized functional flap: omohyoid inferior belly muscle

    Gerado Muñoz-Jimenez, Jose E. Telich-Tarriba, Damian Palafox-Vidal, Alexander Cardenas-Mejia
    Aim: There is no previous description on the anatomy of the inferior belly of the omohyoid muscle. This muscle has specific morphological characteristic that make it appealing when solving specialized reconstructive problems. Our objective is to describe the microsurgical anatomy of the inferior belly from the omohyoid muscle. Methods: Supraclavicular bilateral dissection in 5 anatomic models (fresh human cadavers). Measurements were taken with a millimetric caliper. Statistical analysis was performed with measures of central tendency. Results: Eight muscles were dissected in 5 anatomic... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Surgical Procedures for Facial Paralysis and Peripheral Nerve Clinical Conditions
    Plast Aesthet Res 2018;5:14. | doi:10.20517/2347-9264.2018.04
    Published on: 23 Apr 2018  | Viewed:1227  | Downloaded:52
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  • Topic: Hair transplantation|Open Access

    The distribution of hair in Han Chinese

    Zhen-He Guo, Guan Wang, Yong Miao, Zhe-Xiang Fan, Xiao-Min Liu, Qian Qu, Ke Ye, De-Cong Zhu, Zhi-Qi Hu
    Aim: To explore the characteristics of normal hair distribution in Han Chinese. Methods: A total of 146 healthy Han Chinese and 41 patients with androgenetic alopecia (AGA) were selected as research subjects. Digital photographs of the vertex, temporal, and occipital regions were taken after their hair was trimmed. An image analysis software was used to compute the number of follicular units (FUs) and hairs. Results: The mean FU density of the 146 healthy Han Chinese was 74.36 ± 13.33 units/cm2 and their mean hair density was 143.33 ± 28.08 hairs/cm2. There was no significant difference... Read more
    Plast Aesthet Res 2017;4:150-4. | doi:10.20517/2347-9264.2017.52
    Published on: 28 Sep 2017  | Viewed:1218  | Downloaded:69
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  • Meeting Abstracts|Open Access

    The 3rd Annual Meeting of The Mountain West Society of Plastic Surgeons

    Raman C. Mahabir
    Plast Aesthet Res 2018;5:6. | doi:10.20517/2347-9264.2018.08
    Published on: 28 Feb 2018  | Viewed:1174  | Downloaded:73
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  • Topic: Keloid and its Treatment|Open Access

    Keloid treatment: what will be the right choice?

    You-Bin Wang
    Plast Aesthet Res 2017;4:106-7. | doi:10.20517/2347-9264.2017.44
    Published on: 17 Jul 2017  | Viewed:1165  | Downloaded:128
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  • Review|Open Access

    Wound healing in postbariatric body contouring surgery

    Olimpiu Bota, Martin Schreiber, Florian Bönke, Dominika Teather, Adrian Dragu
    Due to the continuous development in the field of bariatric surgery, there is an increasing need for postbariatric body contouring surgery. The morbidity of postbariatric patients predisposes them to develop wound healing complications. In this article we describe the preoperative, intraoperative and surgical factors influencing the wound healing and therefore the final outcome. The most common postbariatric body contouring procedures, including brachioplasty, breast contouring surgery, abdominoplasty/circumferential body lift and medial thigh lift are being discussed in terms of wound... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Wound Healing and Plastic Surgery
    Plast Aesthet Res 2018;5:30. | doi:10.20517/2347-9264.2018.47
    Published on: 23 Aug 2018  | Viewed:1159  | Downloaded:70
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    Cherubism in a 4-year-old boy managed with tumor curettage, mandibular osteotomies and repositioning

    Jared W. Garlick, Rhett N. Willis, Daniel P. Donato, Barbu Gociman
    Cherubism is a rare disease characterized by significant loss of medullary bone which is replaced by excessive amounts of fibrous tissue growth within the mandible and maxilla. We present a case of a 4-year-old boy with a rapidly enlarging mandible and maxilla, causing significant change in the facial contour, malocclusion and phonation difficulties. He was treated with aggressive tumor curettage, lateral mandibular cortex osteotomies with medial repositioning. This allowed obliteration of the enlarged medullary space and restoration of the normal mandibular anatomy. At 12 months... Read more
    Plast Aesthet Res 2018;5:29. | doi:10.20517/2347-9264.2018.36
    Published on: 16 Aug 2018  | Viewed:1154  | Downloaded:27
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  • Topic: Complex Reconstruction of the Face, Breast and Wounds with Microvascular Free Flaps|Open Access

    Microsurgical restoration of failed or unsatisfactory breast reconstruction: a systematic review and pooled-analysis of outcomes

    Bassim EL-Sabawi, Anna C. Howell, Ketan M. Patel
    Aim: Autologous tissue transfer to salvage breast reconstruction following a previously failed or unsatisfactory reconstruction has been described by previous studies to be an effective strategy to optimize outcomes. The purpose of this systematic review is to assimilate the relevant literature to evaluate surgical and aesthetic outcomes following autologous breast reconstruction in the setting of a prior unsuccessful reconstruction. Methods: A systematic review of the English literature was performed on Pubmed/MEDLINE to identify all manuscripts reporting surgical outcomes, aesthetic... Read more
    Plast Aesthet Res 2017;4:195-203. | doi:10.20517/2347-9264.2017.20
    Published on: 31 Oct 2017  | Viewed:1036  | Downloaded:64
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    Successful reconstruction of bilateral oral commissure fusion secondary to Stevens Johnson syndrome

    Shadai Flores, Dino Maglic, Neal Moores, Rayaad Hosein, Faizi Siddiqi, Barbu Gociman
    Stevens Johnson syndrome (SJS) is a rare and often fatal hypersensitivity reaction commonly triggered by drugs which results in the uncontrolled destruction of keratinocytes with both cutaneous and mucosal involvement. Fusion of the oral commissures, although reported in burn victims, is a very uncommon complication of SJS. The successful reconstruction of oral commissures fusion using a modified commissuroplasty technique in a 19-year-old Hispanic female with severe microstomia secondary to SJS is presented here. Re-establishment of normal speech, oral intake, as well as aesthetic... Read more
    Plast Aesthet Res 2018;5:24. | doi:10.20517/2347-9264.2018.31
    Published on: 27 Jul 2018  | Viewed:994  | Downloaded:21
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  • Topic: Complex Reconstruction of the Face, Breast and Wounds with Microvascular Free Flaps|Open Access

    Current applications of propeller flaps in reconstruction of trunk wounds

    Shawn Moshrefi, Gordon K. Lee
    Aim: Propeller flaps provide excellent reconstructive options for defects of many etiologies. Trunk wounds are a commonly encountered issue for the plastic surgeon and multiple techniques to address them should be prepared for implementation. Propeller flaps are a subject rarely brought up as an option to address these wounds. The authors sought to elucidate this topic in the current plastic surgery literature available. Methods: A PubMed search was conducted based upon the defined inclusion and exclusion criteria and publications reviewed in detail. Search terms included "trunk wound... Read more
    Plast Aesthet Res 2017;4:204-8. | doi:10.20517/2347-9264.2017.33
    Published on: 30 Nov 2017  | Viewed:961  | Downloaded:73
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  • Systematic Review|Open Access

    A systematic literature review of the management of chronic venous ulcers with autologous fibrin matrix with or without growth factors

    Alejandra García Botero, Jorge Ernesto Cantini Ardila, Luis David Devoz Borja, Viviana Gómez-Ortega
    Aim: To evaluate available evidence for the effective management of venous leg ulcers with fibrin matrix with or without growth factors. Methods: A systematic review of the literature was performed to evaluate the use of fibrin matrices with or without growth factors for the management of chronic venous ulcers in lower limbs. Article searches were performed in MEDLINE, EMBASE, COCHRANE, LILACS and ongoing clinical trials at ClinicalTrial.gov. Results: The search in MEDLINE and EMBASE identified three articles; one was a pilot study evaluating the use of fibrin matrix and autologous growth... Read more
    Plast Aesthet Res 2018;5:15. | doi:10.20517/2347-9264.2018.09
    Published on: 23 Apr 2018  | Viewed:921  | Downloaded:41
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    Role of newer technologies in wound bed preparation in Fournier's gangrene

    Souradeep Dutta, Abhinav Aggarwal, Ravi Kumar Chittoria, Elankumar Subbarayan, Vinayak Chavan, Konda Sireesha Reddy, Saurabh Gupta, Chirra Likhitha Reddy
    Fournier's gangrene or necrotizing fasciitis of the perineum scrotum and penis is a highly debilitating condition with a high mortality rate of 20% to 88% reported in the literature. Management is multimodal, and the importance of aggressive debridement, broad-spectrum antibiotics and intensive supportive care cannot be emphasised. The addition of newer modalities of ulcer/wound management like low level laser therapy, hydrojet debridement and platelet rich plasma can be used to augment the existing principles of management and reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with the... Read more
    Plast Aesthet Res 2018;5:20. | doi:10.20517/2347-9264.2018.19
    Published on: 28 Jun 2018  | Viewed:863  | Downloaded:23
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  • Technical Note|Open Access

    Global facial rejuvenation, new technique

    Giuseppe Colombo, Vittorio Ruvolo
    Facial aging is the combination of multiple effects such as sun exposure, tobacco, environmental stress and smog, reflecting the cumulative and dynamic effects of time on the skin, soft tissues and the deep structural components of the face that show an important change structural features of the skin and loss of facial volume. There are many different techniques currently used to perform face lifting, the ultimate goal is to get good results with respect for patient safety. This article describes a new approach to facial rejuvenation combining superficial musculoaponeurotic system (SMAS)... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Facial Rejuvenation: from scalpel to syringe
    Plast Aesthet Res 2018;5:25. | doi:10.20517/2347-9264.2018.29
    Published on: 30 Jul 2018  | Viewed:700  | Downloaded:36
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  • Review|Open Access

    Rejuvenation of the centre of the face: a new paradigm. Endoscopic lifting with fat grafting

    Gabriel Pignata, Alessandro Gennai, Francesco Bernardini
    The ageing process starts in the centre of the face in the periocular region and around the mouth, with a combination of volume loss and tissue descent. It is a logical approach to assess all these problems at once. The combination of minimal incisions vertical endoscopic lifting combined with superficial enhanced fluid fat injection can be an integral approach to facial rejuvenation. Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Facial Rejuvenation: from scalpel to syringe
    Plast Aesthet Res 2018;5:23. | doi:10.20517/2347-9264.2018.28
    Published on: 20 Jul 2018  | Viewed:681  | Downloaded:24
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Applying skin graft sheets transversely to manage burn patients

    Ricardo Madiedo, Jorge Luis Gaviria-Castellanos, Alejandro Zapata-Ospina
    Aim: The aim of this study is to determine whether the split-thickness grafts should be applied to the treatment of burn patients, parallel to the relaxed skin tension lines as described by Kraissl, which would help scarring and reduce the development of abnormal scars. Methods: A descriptive longitudinal case series study was conducted at the Burn Unit of Health Services Simón Bolívar North Subnetwork E.S.E. of the Secretariat of Health in Bogotá, Colombia, from 1 Jan 2016 to 31 Dec 2017. A total of 138 burn patients exhibiting deep partial- or full-thickness burns involving different body... Read more
    Plast Aesthet Res 2018;5:40. | doi:10.20517/2347-9264.2018.40
    Published on: 11 Oct 2018  | Viewed:662  | Downloaded:114
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Negative pressure wound therapy with instillation: effects on healing of category 4 pressure ulcers

    Johannes Matiasek, Gabriel Djedovic, Marcus Kiehlmann, Ralph Verstappen, Ulrich M. Rieger
    ... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Wound Healing and Plastic Surgery
    Plast Aesthet Res 2018;5:36. | doi:10.20517/2347-9264.2018.50
    Published on: 28 Sep 2018  | Viewed:645  | Downloaded:33
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  • Review|Open Access

    State of the art in enzymatic debridement

    Benjamin Ziegler, Gabriel Hundeshagen, Tomke Cordts, Ulrich Kneser, Christoph Hirche
    Surgical treatment of deep partial thickness to full thickness burn wounds by knife has been the undisputed standard of care and was one key point in surgical burn medicine for decades. Recently, it gets more and more challenged by Bromelain-based enzymatic burn wound debridement (ED) as technique for non-surgical, selective eschar removal. Although the literature on ED is increasing constantly it cannot comprise the rapid progress that is made in clinical application of ED. To outline the current state of art in ED, recent literature as well as clinical experience is summarized and the... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Wound Healing and Plastic Surgery
    Plast Aesthet Res 2018;5:33. | doi:10.20517/2347-9264.2018.46
    Published on: 29 Aug 2018  | Viewed:608  | Downloaded:46
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Technical refinements of the modified central mound breast reduction

    Simon Nicholson, Muhammad Adil Abbas Khan, Muhammad Riaz
    Aim: Common pitfalls with existing breast reduction techniques include poor aesthetic outcome, such as development of a “boxy” breast shape, and pseudoptosis. Presented here are a series of modifications to the technique of central mound breast reduction, based on previous work, aimed at ensuring consistent aesthetic results which are maintained in the long-term. Methods: All patients undergoing bilateral breast reduction by the senior author over a 7-year period were included, with outcome data collected prospectively. A detailed description of the technique is offered. Results: One... Read more
    Plast Aesthet Res 2018;5:34. | doi:10.20517/2347-9264.2018.30
    Published on: 21 Sep 2018  | Viewed:601  | Downloaded:46
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  • Review|Open Access

    Prefabricated flaps and neoangiogenesis initiated via venous grafts in arteriovenous loops

    Elias Polykandriotis, Andreas Arkudas, Annika Weigand, Aijia Cai, Raymund E. Horch
    New developments in regenerative medicine are bound to revolutionize the way we approach loss of function and form in human organisms. Especially in the field of reconstructive plastic surgery new biotechnologies find their way from bench to bed. Biofabrication is an evolving field that aims to combine natural biologic processes with bioartificial constructs with the scope of reconstituting tissue without having to rely on autotransplantation. In this brief review we present the concepts of intrinsic vs. extrinsic neovascularization and we discuss the use of neovascularization in three... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Wound Healing and Plastic Surgery
    Plast Aesthet Res 2018;5:37. | doi:10.20517/2347-9264.2018.52
    Published on: 28 Sep 2018  | Viewed:494  | Downloaded:20
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Extended sternoclavicular joint infections in cirrhotic patients: staged interdisciplinary approach with thoracic and plastic surgery

    Waldemar Schreiner, Wojciech Dudek, Denis Iulian Trufa, Raymund E. Horch, Horia Sirbu
    Aim: Sternoclavicular joint infection associated with liver cirrhosis is an uncommon condition and the optimal surgical treatment is undefined. Methods: Patients and methods: we retrospectively analysed data from six patients with sternoclavicular joint infections and liver cirrhosis underwent between February 2008 and May 2018 a staged therapy using negative pressure therapy followed by secondary "en bloc" joint resection and a pectoralis muscle flap (PMF) obliteration of the thoracic wall defect. Results: Four patients successfully underwent a transfer of the PMF. The surgical revision... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Wound Healing and Plastic Surgery
    Plast Aesthet Res 2018;5:32. | doi:10.20517/2347-9264.2018.45
    Published on: 29 Aug 2018  | Viewed:474  | Downloaded:29
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    One-stage reconstruction of neck burns with single-layer dermal matrix

    Jorge Luis Gaviria, Viviana Gómez-Ortega
    Aim: The aim of the study was to describe the applicability of a single-layer acellular dermal matrix, in combination with split-thickness skin graft (STSG) in one-stage surgical procedure in patients with deep neck second - and third - degree burns. Methods: A descriptive longitudinal study was conducted at the Burn Unit of the Health Services Unit of Simón Bolívar North Subnetwork E.S.E. of the Secretariat of Health in Bogotá, Colombia, from January 1 2016 to December 31 2017 in which we describe the applicability of a single-layer acellular dermal matrix in combination with STSG in... Read more
    Plast Aesthet Res 2018;5:35. | doi:10.20517/2347-9264.2018.38
    Published on: 27 Sep 2018  | Viewed:461  | Downloaded:728
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  • Review|Open Access

    Adipose-derived stem cells in cutaneous wound repair

    Bong-Sung Kim, Berthold Debye, Justus P. Beier
    Growing interest in regenerative medicine and advances in adipose tissue research have led to the identification of mesenchymal stem cells in adipose tissue, so called adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ASCs). Due to the simple and safe harvest technique as well as high regenerative capacity, ASCs are regarded as a potential source for various indications including cutaneous wound repair. This review provides a short overview over mechanisms of ASC action in cutaneous wound repair and data regarding its clinical application. Mostly experimental data provide accruing evidence for the... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Wound Healing and Plastic Surgery
    Plast Aesthet Res 2018;5:31. | doi:10.20517/2347-9264.2018.26
    Published on: 28 Aug 2018  | Viewed:453  | Downloaded:38
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Low level laser as an adjunct therapy for second degree superficial burns

    Saurabh Gupta, Ravi Kumar Chittoria, Elankumar Subbarao, Konda Sireesha Reddy, Vinayak Chavan, Abhinav Aggarawal, Chirra Likhitha Reddy
    Aim: Second degree superficial burns are painful and heal over a period of two to three weeks time. Multimodality treatment approach is effective in reducing time of healing, pain, rate of complications and overall cost of treatment. Aim of this study is to observe effect of low level laser therapy (LLLT) as an adjunct to conventional therapy for second degree superficial burn. Methods: This article presents a case series of twenty patients in which LLLT was used as an adjunct therapy for target burn areas. Results: Average time taken for complete healing of areas with second degree... Read more
    Plast Aesthet Res 2018;5:41. | doi:10.20517/2347-9264.2018.51
    Published on: 16 Oct 2018  | Viewed:426  | Downloaded:12
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  • Review|Open Access

    Tissue conditioning - strategies to improve perfusion and reduce ischemia - reperfusion injury

    Sabrina Krauss, Jens Rothenberger, Johannes Mayer, Alexander Sogorski, Manuel Held, Theodora Wahler, Adrien Daigeler, Jonas Kolbenschlag
    Ischemia as well as ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) can cause serious tissue damage and therefore is a feared complication in reconstructive surgery. This is the reason why researchers around the world invest their efforts to improve tissue viability after ischemic events. Tissue conditioning offers a broad scope of different techniques which can be applied pre-, peri- or postoperatively to adapt the affected tissue to the subsequent stress during and after ischemia to prevent or minimize IRI. The different ways of tissue conditioning in flap surgery include surgical delay, ischemic... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Wound Healing and Plastic Surgery
    Plast Aesthet Res 2018;5:39. | doi:10.20517/2347-9264.2018.41
    Published on: 29 Sep 2018  | Viewed:425  | Downloaded:21
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    Defect reconstruction of the trochanter major after necrotizing fasciitis and multiple operations using an arteriovenous loop and latissimus dorsi free flap

    Andreas Arkudas, Susanne Regus, Alexander Meyer, Werner Lang, Marweh Schmitz, Raymund E. Horch
    Necrotizing fasciitis (NF) is a severe soft tissue infection which has to be treated with a radical debridement as the key element. In the further course often large tissue defects occur, so that a long-term stable defect reconstruction plays a crucial role after any successful debridement. The reconstruction can include split skin grafting or local and free flaps. Here we present a case of a 41-year-old male patient with a NF in the trochanter major region after spondylodesis and spinal cord stimulation (SCS) device implantation. After multiple operations including local and free flaps we... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Wound Healing and Plastic Surgery
    Plast Aesthet Res 2018;5:38. | doi:10.20517/2347-9264.2018.44
    Published on: 28 Sep 2018  | Viewed:392  | Downloaded:22
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  • Editorial|Open Access

    Wound healing and plastic surgery - an introduction to a special issue

    Raymund E. Horch
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Wound Healing and Plastic Surgery
    Plast Aesthet Res 2018;5:42. | doi:10.20517/2347-9264.2018.64
    Published on: 19 Oct 2018  | Viewed:365  | Downloaded:16
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  • Retraction|Open Access

    Retraction: Optimization of the design of a barbed suture for flexor tendon repair using extended finite element analysis

    Joseph Bakhach, Ahmad Oneissi, Dimitri Bakhach, Reem Karami, Kobeissi Hiba, Shammas Elie
    Plast Aesthet Res 2018;5:28. | doi:10.20517/2347-9264.2018.56
    Published on: 10 Aug 2018  | Viewed:325  | Downloaded:36
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  • Retraction|Open Access

    Retraction: Optimization of tissue anchoring performance and mechanical properties of barbed sutures for flexor tendons repair

    Joseph Bakhach, Ahmad Oneissi, Elsa Bakhach, Reem Karameh, Mireille Hantouche, Elie Shammas
    Plast Aesthet Res 2018;5:27. | doi:10.20517/2347-9264.2018.55
    Published on: 10 Aug 2018  | Viewed:321  | Downloaded:23
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  • Review|Open Access

    Periocular rejuvenation with neurotoxin and dermal filler

    Wendy W. Lee, Alexandra E. Levitt
    The periocular area is one of the first regions of the body to show signs of aging, which include static and dynamic rhytids as well as subcutaneous volume loss. The complex anatomy and dynamic underlying muscles of facial expression make this region particularly difficult to treat. Botulinum toxins and fillers, especially when used in combination, offer an excellent approach to minimally invasive rejuvenation of this area. This article aims to present a basic overview and clinical primer for the use of these injectables along with advice on avoiding and managing common complications. Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Blepharoplasty and Periorbital Rejuvenation
    Plast Aesthet Res 2018;5:43. | doi:10.20517/2347-9264.2018.39
    Published on: 23 Oct 2018  | Viewed:287  | Downloaded:11
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    Pedicled omentum for coverage of extra-abdominal vascular bypass graft in the groin

    Neal G. Moores, Christopher J. Pannucci
    The omentum is a well-established pedicled flap for coverage of intra-abdominal and thoracic pathology, and as a free-flap for a multitude of applications. Its use as a pedicled flap for extra-abdominal applications other than those on the chest is less well described. Here we present a case where a pedicled omental flap was utilized to provide circumferential and buried coverage of an in-line ilio-femoral bypass graft well below the level of the inguinal ligament. The reach of the omentum was more than adequate, and the delicate nature of the flap provided excellent circumferential... Read more
    Plast Aesthet Res 2018;5:44. | doi:10.20517/2347-9264.2018.32
    Published on: 13 Nov 2018  | Viewed:5  | Downloaded:0
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